Introduction

The Antoinette is considered by many as the most esthetically beautiful airplane of the early pioneering era of aviation. Designed by Leon Levavasseur, a renowned boat builder and engineer, the Antoinette possessed many features and innovations that were far ahead of its time.

The story begins in 1903 when Levavasseur, financed by a gentleman named Jules Gastambide, designed and built a super light engine specifically for the new sport of motor boating. Named for Gastambide's daughter, Antoinette, the engine was a large success and by 1904, it was powering winning powerboat racers all over Europe.

By 1906, in response to the rapidly growing interest in aviation, a new company was formed for the commercial development and production of the Antoinette engine for use in aircraft. Gastambide was the president, Louis Bleriot vice-president, and Levavasseur was the technical director. The Antoinette aircraft engine was innovative and relatively powerful. It employed direct fuel injection and evaporative steam cooling.

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It was a V-8 in configuration and was made to be very light, at 110 lbs. Rated at 50 hp, this engine produced an admirable power-to-weight ratio of 2.2 lbs./hp. For perspective, this power-to-weight ratio was not to be generally exceeded for the next 25 years! If the engine had any faults, it was primarily the fuel injection system. Even the tiniest speck of dirt would foul the injectors causing the engine to stop. Nonetheless, the engine was a commercial success and was used by many early aviation pioneers in their designs.

Eventually, Levavasseur was asked by the owners of the company to design an aeroplane. His first two efforts were not very successful. Levavasseurís third aeroplane met with limited success in that it was the first monoplane in the world to carry a passenger aloft and make a complete circuit of the field before landing. It was also one of the first aeroplanes to use dihedral in the wings, a concept which was not widely accepted at that time. Subsequent versions of this airplane featured beautifully paneled wood fuselages with "boat prow" noses, sail-like tail groups, and even a central rigging "mast".

The Antoinette IV was flown in early 1909 and was immediately at the forefront of aviation performance. Flown by French aviator Hubert Latham, the Antoinette IV narrowly missed beating Louis Bleriot in the first flight across the English Channel. Subsequent versions of the Antoinette, variously powered by V-8, V-12, and even V-16 engines, were seemingly everywhere in competitions and record attempts.
Hubert Latham turns his Antoinette around the pylon in a speed event in 1909 at a blistering 48 mph. That same year, Latham set world records for endurance (1 hour 7 minutes) and altitude (512 feet) with his Antoinette.

The SIG Antoinette is based on one of the more famous versions, the Model VII. The signature top and bottom rudders, triangular elevators, and boat prow fuselage are all faithfully incorporated into this unique piece of aviation history. The model itself is remarkably stable, easy to fly, and really looks the part in the air! The airplane is capable of extremely slow flight and is likely, very close to scale speeds. When built to these instructions and properly detailed, the SIG indoor R/C Antoinette is very believable - on the ground or in the air.


Building your Antoinette has been made easy with the supplied laser-cut parts. The included profile pilot has been used in all of our Antoinette models, giving the airplane a more realistic look as well as a scale size perspective. Detailing your Antoinette is covered fully in these instructions. The scale-like plastic V-8 engine is easy to assemble and is a nice addition to the model. The elastic rigging lines and rigging swages likewise give the finished airplane a wonderful look. Between flying sessions, you may enjoy displaying this intriguing and historically significant model in your workshop, office, or den - it's a real attention grabber!

This kit is not intended for beginning modelers. However, most intermediate modelers with average building skills will find the Antoinette easy to build and fly. These instructions assume that you are aware of the importance of using the correct type and amount of glue, how to make proper wood joints, and how to fly R/C models.

Motors And Propellers

We've chosen the well-proven GWS "R/C Indoor Power System" motors and gear drives to power the SIG Antoinette (note that Maxx Products also markets these exact same power units under their "MPI" name). These motor and gear drive systems are very easy to use, widely available, very inexpensive, and are of good quality. These systems are currently available in eight different gear ratios, capable of swinging propellers from 6" diameter all the way up to 12" diameter. GWS also produces a good selection of propellers to fit all of their gear drive systems. During the development of the Antoinette, we experimented with different gear ratios and propellers.


We found that a very good combination for this airplane was the GWS "DX-B" system (same as Maxx Products "EPU-7") which has a 7:1 gear ratio, along with the GWS 10 x 5 propeller. With a 7-cell 350mAh Ni-Cad battery pack (Sanyo P/N N-350AAC), this combination has provided good power margins, scale-like speeds along with very good flight duration.

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Radio Equipment, Speed Controller, Battery Pack, And Connectors

One of the very reasons that indoor models such as the Antoinette are now possible is the fairly recent availability of good quality, reasonably priced light-weight micro receivers, servos, and speed controllers (ESC's). Up to this time, such equipment was only available from small, highly specialized sources at relatively high prices.

Here are the airborne system components we've used in the Antoinette.

ItemWeight
Maxx Products (MPI) #MX-6800 Pico 4-Ch Micro Receiver, w/crystal8 grams
Maxx Products (MPI) #MX-30 Pico Servos7 grams each
Maxx Products (MPI) #MX-9104 Micro ESC (Electronic Speed Control)1 gram
7-cell 350mAh Ni-Cd (nicad) Battery Pack95 grams
7-cell 500 mAh NiMH (nickel metal hydride) Battery Pack96 grams

These are the components that are shown in this manual and on the plans. We did not use an On/Off switch in this airplane because of weight considerations. The battery is simply plugged and unplugged from the ESC before and after each flight. Different brands of receivers, servos, and ESC's may be usable with this design, provided they are the same weight and size or lighter. For obvious reasons, standard size radio components cannot be used with the Antoinette.

A 7-cell 350mAh Ni-Cad battery pack is used in the Antoinette to provide good flight duration. With throttle management, this battery pack will keep the Antoinette flying for anywhere from 8 to 12 minutes. We've also used 7-cell 500 mAh NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride) battery packs with good results. In general, the difference between this type of cell and the 350 mAh NiCad cell is that the NiMH pack seems to deliver a little less power with some incremental increase in duration. Both types of cells weigh the same, so they are both usable. Last, the battery pack should be configured in the "hump" shape - four cells on the bottom, three cells on top. This layout offers the most mass in the least amount of space and this is very helpful when making small changes in the C.G. location, if needed.


For maximum flight performance, indoor R/C models require attention to the weight of everything they must carry aloft, including connectors. We used and liked the small 2-prong Dean's connectors for connecting the battery pack to the ESC. Recently, Cloud 9 Micro R/C announced the availability of their new micro connectors. We've seen and used these and can recommend them for use with the Antoinette. There are many other connectors available on the market. Be sure to choose your connectors with weight, size, and efficiency considerations in mind.

Last, our radio systems include excellent transmitters, providing us with features such as servo throw adjustments (EPA), servo reversing, servo sub-trim adjustments, etc. Our trusty Airtronicsģ RD-6000 Sport transmitters and the equivalent HiTec units have taken care of all these needs.

Required Tools
A selection of glues
  • SIG Thin CA
  • SIG Medium or Thick CA
  • SIG Thin CA Applicator Tips
  • SIG Kwik-Shot CA Accelerator
  • Heat-Activated Covering Adhesive,
    such as SIG Stix-It or Solarfilm Balsaloc.
Assorted drill bits, including
  • .031" (1/32" or # 68)
  • .046" (3/64" or # 56)
  • .063" (1/16" or # 52)
  • .078" (5/64" or # 47)
  • .093" (3/32" or # 42)
  • .109" (7/64" or # 35)
A selection of hand tools, such as
  • Regular size and miniature screwdrivers
  • Regular size and miniature pliers (flat nose, needle nose, round nose)
  • Tweezers and/or small hemostats
  • Hobby knife with sharp #11 blades
  • Sandpaper - assorted grits
  • Modelerís "T" pins
  • Power drill and hand "pin vise" (for small diameter drill bits)

Paint

Since fuel proofing is not an issue with electric powered airplanes, the only reason to paint any part of the Antoinette is to improve the scale appearance of the model. And because light weight is so important in an indoor model, weíve tried to keep the painting on the Antoinette to a minimum. Too much paint, or the wrong kind of paint, can add unnecessary weight in a hurry.

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We suggest:
  1. Painting the front of the fuselage, the landing gear struts, and the wing tip skids brown to look like varnished wood. Do not use thick, heavy paints like epoxy or enamel on these large areas of the model. We prefer thinned SIG Supercoat Dope or "waterbased acrylic craft paint" (see note below). One coat is usually all that is necessary. A completely filled glossy paint job is not necessary or desirable, and itís too heavy for this type of model. One coat usually achieves the "old time" look we are after.
    * Water-Based Acrylic Craft Paint: These very inexpensive paints are sold in the craft departments of stores such as Wal-Mart, K-Mart, and similar outlets. They seem to be manufactured under many different brand names, such as Delta Ceramcoat and Apple Barrel Colors. They are available in a huge variety of colors. We found that thinning these paints with equal amounts of water produced nice results, when either brushed or sprayed, with very little weight build-up. Clean-up is also easy, using just warm water.

  2. Weíve tried a variety of colors for the balsa wheels on our prototype Antoinette models: gray to simulate steel wheels, brown for wood wheels, or black like the original Antoinette in the Paris Musee díAir museum. Itís your choice and a matter of personal preference.

  3. The amber colored surgical tubing that is provided for the tires can be easily dyed black with regular household variety Rit Dye. That looks good with gray or brown wheels. The Antoinette in the Paris museum has gray tires on black wheels.

  4. The dummy engine, dummy gas tank, and other small scale details were also painted to improve their scale appearance. These parts were painted with Testors Model Master paints, using the spray can products whenever possible. This is enamel paint, primarily marketed for plastic models, but it is thin enough that it can be used on our small parts without appreciable weight build-up. The engine crankcase was sprayed Steel color. The cylinders are Copper, just like the real Antoinette engine had. The exhaust pipes look good painted with Exhaust Buffing Metalizer. The dummy gas tank looks great painted Copper, just like on the full-scale Antoinette.

COMPLETE KIT PARTS LIST
Balsa Sticks & Sheets
11/16"x1/4"x24" Balsa Sticks; for W1 Rib Stiffeners 31/8"x1/8"x43" Balsa Sticks; for Fuselage Longerons 71/8"x1/8"x36" Balsa Sticks; for Fuselage, Stab, Elevator, Fin, Rudder, Wing Tip Braces 41/4" dia. x 30" Balsa Dowels; for Wing L.E., Wing T.E.
11/4" dia. x 6-3/4"" Balsa Dowel; for L.G. Spreader Bar 21/32"x3"x24" Balsa Sheet; for Fuselage Side Sheeting
Laser-Cut Balsa
11/16" thick Sheet #1; F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, F10, FD1 11/16" thick Sheet #2; F11, F12, F13, LG2, LG3, LG4, WHL 21/8" thick Sheet #3; W1, W2, W3, W4, W5, W6, W7, W8, WG1, WG2, WG3, WG4, CHG, WHB 11/8" thick Sheet #4; S1, S2, KEEL, BTM, RXM
11/4" thick Sheet #5; FDB, RDB 11/32" thick Sheet #6; WSP, DUMMY ENGINE BASE
Laser-Cut Plywood
11/8" thick Sheet #7; F1, WM 11/32" thick Sheet #8; LG1, LG5, LG6, WTS, WSF, WHC, WRT, CHN, CONTROL WHEELS 11/16" thick Sheet #9; MOTOR MOUNT
Hardwood
11/4" dia. x6-1/8" Birch Dowel; for Main Gear Post 410" Bamboo Sticks; for Tail Skid, Center Rigging Post, Wing Rigging Posts 11/8"x1/4"x3" Basswood Stick; for Servo Mounts
Wire Parts
1.020" dia. x12" Straight Wire; for Rigging Hooks 2.046" dia. x1-1/2" Straight Wire; for Axles 2.046" dia. Formed Landing Gear Brace Wires
Hardware
3#2 x1/4" Sheet Metal Screws; for motor attachment 1.090 x1/8" Round Brass Machine Screw; for pilot 1.090 Brass Hex Nut; for pilot 2.090 Brass Washers; for pilot
Miscellaneous Parts
1Molded ABS Plastic Scale Dummy Engine Crankcase 2Molded ABS Plastic Scale Dummy Engine Cylinders 1Sig Easy Hinge 321/16" od x1/4" Aluminum Tubes; for Wing Rigging Points and Swage Tubes
41/4" id x1-5/16" Aluminum Tubes; for Wing Mount Tubes 110 ft. Monofilament Fishing Line; for pull-pull lines 18 yds. Elastic Thread; for rigging wires 12 ft. Dacron Thread
120" Surgical Rubber Tubing; for Tires 119-1/2"x90" Covering Material, color: antique 13/4"x3" long Velcroģ 1Pilot Sheet
1Decal Sheet 1Full-Size Plan 1Assembly Manual

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FUSELAGE CONSTRUCTION

1.

The basic framework of the fuselage will be built upside down on the plan. Pin the FUSELAGE TOP FRAME PLAN to your building board and cover with wax paper or plastic wrap for protection. Locate the plan on the building board so that former F1 is just past the end of the board (the top of F1 has two "tabs" that must hang over the edge of the board when F1 is installed later).

2.

Pin two 1/8" sq. x43" balsa sticks directly over the plan for the Top Longerons. Bend the longerons to follow the plan exactly from former F2 all the way back to the tail end. Donít worry about the area forward of F2 at this time - it will be pulled together later when we install former F1.

Note: You will have to taper the inside edges of both longerons slightly at the tail end, as shown on the plan.

3.

Cut to length and pin in place all of the 1/8" sq. balsa crosspieces shown on the FUSELAGE TOP FRAME PLAN. Tack glue them in place with a small drop of Thin CA at each end.

Note: Cut these cross-braces from the leftover 1/8" sq. from step 2 and from new 36" long stock. Do not cut them from the last 1/8" sq. x43" stick, which will be needed for step 6.

Basic Rule of Model Building: Cut the longest pieces of 1/8" sq. balsa first, then the shorter pieces, in order to make the most efficient use of the stock 36" long sticks. This is good advice for this step and throughout the entire construction of this airplane.


4.

Glue formers F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, F10, F11, F12, and F13 in place. Make sure all these formers are glued in perpendicular (90 deg.) to the building board. Do not install former F1 at this time, or the 1/8" sq. balsa doublers that go between F1 and F2. Weíll add them shortly. Leave the top frame assembly pinned to the plan even after the glue is dry.

5.

Glue the balsa Keel into the notches in formers F2 and F3.

6.

Cut the last 1/8" sq. x43" balsa stick to 17" long to make the forward portion of the Bottom Longeron. That should be real close to the length you need to go from the notch in former F2 back to former F7.
Trial fit the piece in the notches of the formers. Final trim the length, if necessary, so that the longeron ends halfway in the notch of F7. Glue in place.


7.

Cut the remainder of the 43" long stick from the previous step to 22" long. This is the rear portion of the Bottom Longeron. Glue it in the notches of all the rear formers F7 through F13. Let the excess length hang over past the tail end of the fuselage.

8.

Use a 90 deg. triangle to mark and cut the tail end of the Bottom Longeron even with the ends of the Top Longerons.

9.

Cut a piece of 1/8" sq. balsa for the tail post. Note that the bottom end must be cut at an angle. Glue the tail post in place to the fuselage framework.



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10a. Even though weíre not going to glue it on right now, letís make the Tail Skid. Take one of the 10" pieces of bamboo provided and put a pencil mark at 7" and 8" from one end. The 1" area between these two marks needs to be bent to form the curved bottom of the tail skid, as shown on the plan.


b.

There are a lot of different ways to bend wood, but for this application weíve found that the easiest method is simply to do a "controlled break" of the area we want formed. In other words, we simply bend the bamboo slowly until it just starts to break. Start with the tip of your thumb near one end of the 1" marked area. Bend the stick over your thumb until you feel it start to break. Stop, move your thumb about 1/4" or so further along in the area you want formed, and then bend again. Continue moving along in small increments in the area you want formed, bending it to the point of almost breaking, until you have the shape you want. Donít worry if a few strands of bamboo start to get loose on the outside of the curve. Once youíve got the shape you want, thoroughly soak the entire bent area of the bamboo stick with thin CA to re-strengthen it. When dry, sand off any rough spots. Cut off the unwanted portion of the bamboo stick at the 8" mark and sand the end round.

NOTE: Donít worry if the bend in your tail skid doesnít match the plan exactly. The tail skids on the full-scale Antoinettes were all a little different too.

c.

Bevel off the top end of the Tail Skid to fit against the bottom of the fuselage, as shown on the plan. Then, trial fit the Tail Skid on the bottom of the fuselage. You could glue it on now, which would lend support to the rudder post, but weíve found itís a lot easier to cover the rear of the fuselage without the Tail Skid in place. So set it aside for now, and try to be careful not to break off the rudder post.

11.

Double check that the ends of the two 1/8" sq. balsa Top Longerons are cut off right at the front face of former F1 on the plan. Then, install former F1 at the front of the fuselage. The angle on the front of the Keel sets the proper "downthrust" angle for F1. Just make sure the ends of the Top Longerons and the front portion of the Keel are flush with the front face of F1, and that will set the proper angle.




12.

Inspect all the glue joints in the fuselage to this point, and apply more glue where needed. Let dry. Then unpin the fuselage assembly from the building board.

13.

Using a small sanding block with 100-150 grit paper, bevel the front edge of the keel slightly in preparation for adding the fuselage side sheeting. You donít have to sand it to a sharp point, just take the edge off the corners of the keel to provide a good gluing surface for the sheeting.

14.

Two sheets of 1/32"x3"x24" balsa are provided for sheeting the sides of the fuselage from F1 back to F7. The best procedure is to lay one of the 1/32" balsa sheets on a piece of wax paper on your flat building board. Then lay the side of the fuselage down flat on the balsa sheet. As you hold the fuselage down flat against the balsa sheet, start tack gluing formers F7 thru F3 to the sheet. Also glue the top and bottom longerons. Let dry. Note: Donít glue the sheeting to F2 and F1 at this time. Wait until we get the sheeting put on the other side first.

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15. Now repeat the previous step to glue 1/32" balsa sheeting onto the other side of the fuselage. Let dry.

16.

Start pulling the front of both side sheets together at F1. You will have to start trimming some of the excess off both sheets so they donít interfere with each other at the front. When you can hold both side sheets tight against F1, F2, and the keel, start working your way around to all the contact points, gluing the side sheets in place. Let dry.

17.

Trim and sand all the edges of the side sheeting flush with the structure.

18.

Cut four pieces of 1/32" scrap balsa x 1/8"x1/4". Glue them on the sides of the top and bottom longerons at the end of the side sheeting at F7. Taper them down to blend smoothly from the end of the sheeting into the longerons. This will make the covering material go on a lot smoother later.

19.

Glue laser-cut balsa part FD1 in place inside the left side sheeting, between formers F6 and F7, as shown on the plan. Notch out the top longeron and side sheeting to match the notch in FD1.




20.

Cut to length and glue in place a 1/8" sq. balsa doubler on the inside of each top longeron between formers F1 & F2.




21.

Glue the laser-cut rear dihedral brace RDB in place on the rear of former F6. Study the plans, including the F6 cross-section drawing, to make sure you understand exactly where it goes. It should sit perfectly between the fuselage side sheeting, right up against the back of F6.

22.

Trial fit the laser-cut receiver mount RXM in place at the front of former F6. Bevel the outside edges of RXM slightly for a good fit against the fuselage side sheeting. Then, glue RXM in place.

23.

Glue the laser-cut front dihedral brace FDB in place on the front of former F3. Study the plans, including the cross-section drawing, to make sure you understand exactly where it goes. The bottom edge of FDB must be flush with the top edge of the cutout in F3.

24.

Trial fit the two laser-cut battery mounts BTM in place at the front and back of former F3. Bevel the outside edges of the mounts slightly for a good fit against the fuselage side sheeting. Then, glue them in place.


LANDING GEAR

25.

Carefully remove the following parts for the wheels from the laser-cut sheets:
  • 4 - WHL wheels from sheet #2
  • 4 - WHB wheel hubs from sheet #3
  • 4 - WHC wheel hub caps from sheet #8
  • 40 - WSP wheel spokes from sheet #6

26.

Use a #11 hobby knife to cut loose the "pie shaped" scrap pieces between each of the spokes of the WHL parts.

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27. Notice that two of the WHL pieces will be laminated together to form the basic core of one wheel assembly. However before gluing them together, use a flat sanding block with medium grit sandpaper (100 to 200 grit), to bevel the outer edge of each WHL piece. Hold the sanding block at a 45 deg. angle. Bevel only one side of the piece.

The purpose of the beveled edge is to provide a groove for the rubber tire to fit in after the WHL pieces are laminated together with their beveled edges facing each other.




28.

Itís important to work on a flat surface when laminating the WHL pieces together to insure that the finished wheel comes out flat, so it will roll straight and true with no wobble. First, lay a piece of waxed paper down on the flat surface. Next, lay a WHL piece down on the waxed paper with its beveled side up. Position a second WHL piece, beveled side down, on top of the first one. Rotate the top piece so its grain direction is 90 deg. to the grain direction of the bottom piece. This will provide maximum strength to the finished wheel.

Carefully match up the spokes of the two WHL pieces exactly. When satisfied with the positioning, hold the parts flat while tack gluing them together with Thin CA glue at 3 or 4 spots around the outer edge. Put the drops of glue right in the beveled groove. Not too much, just enough to tack glue the WHL parts together.

After the glue dries, you can pick up the laminated part and continue gluing along the spokes and hub areas.

NOTE: It's best to use a fine applicator tip on your CA bottle during assembly of these wheels. In fact, a fine tip is preferred for the assembly of this entire kit.

Building featherlight models like the Antoinette requires that we change our thinking a bit from the old habits we've used in building much heavier sport type models. With the small parts involved here, itís not desirable to flood a large area with a lot of glue. Itís much better to get a little glue exactly where you need it, and a fine applicator tip does that for you.

29.

Next, glue a 1/8" balsa WHB wheel hub and a 1/32" plywood WHC wheel hub cap onto each side of the wheel assembly. To insure that the center holes in all these parts are in correct alignment, itís best to first dry assemble all these parts onto a piece of .046" dia. x 1-1/2" music wire (provided for the axles) as shown. Then, while holding everything snuggly together put a small drop of thin CA glue into each joint. Don't get any glue on the wire!

When dry, you can take the wire out and put a little more glue on the joints if they need it.

Note: After finishing the gluing, you may find that the center hole has become clogged with excess glue and the axle wire wonít fit in the hole anymore. If so, drill out the hole with a .046" dia. (3/64" or #56) drill bit. Make sure the wheels will spin freely on the axle wires.



30.

Glue the 1/32" balsa WSP wheel spokes in place on each side of the wheel. Again use thin CA and a fine applicator tip to keep the glue application to a minimum.

31.

If you want to paint your wheels, do it now (refer to the section on "PAINT").

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32. Complete the wheels by gluing a piece of surgical tubing around the outside to serve as the tire. Again, use thin CA and a fine applicator to keep the glue application under control.
Start by tack gluing one end of the tubing in place in the groove with a single drop of glue. Now, work your way slowly around the perimeter of the wheel, lightly gluing the tubing in the groove as you go. Itís not necessary to stretch the tubing as you put it on, simply make sure you are keeping it straight and not weaving side to side.
When you get to the last 1" or so, stop gluing. Carefully measure and cut off the unglued end of the tubing to proper length to mate up with the first end. Prepare a small "splice" to go inside the two ends of the tubing. A balsa stick approximately 1/16" square x1/4" long should be about right. Cut it from a piece of scrap 1/16" laser-cut balsa sheet. Glue it halfway inside one end to the tubing, and then join the other end up to it. Holding everything in position, finish gluing the end of the tire to the wooden wheel.



33.

Locate the 1/4" dia. x6-3/4" balsa dowel main gear Spreader and the 1/4" dia. x6-1/8" birch dowel Main Gear Post. Make a half-round notch in one end of the Main Gear Post so it mates up nicely with the Spreader.
Glue the Main Gear Post in the middle of the Spreader.

34.

Locate the two .046" dia. formed Landing Gear Brace Wires. Study the LANDING GEAR FRONT VIEW on the plan so you will understand where these brace wires go. Tack glue both brace wires to the landing gear assembly with Thin CA. Then, tightly wrap the attachment of the braces wires to the gear with the Dacron Thread provided. After you complete all three bindings, soak the thread wrapped areas generously with thin CA glue and then, wipe dry with a rag.

35.

Drill a .046" dia. hole in the center of each end of the balsa Spreader. Make the holes about 15/16" deep. Press a .046" dia.x1-1/2" straight music wire Axle into each hole. Leave about 9/16" of the Axle wire sticking out of the end of the Spreader. Make sure the Axle comes out straight and parallel to the Spreader. Then, flow Thin CA glue around the wire. It will soak into the balsa Spreader, gluing the wire permanently in place. Let dry.

36.

Place the wheels on the axles and double check that they rotate freely. Then, press the 1/32" laser-cut plywood WRT wheel retainers onto the axles. Slide WRT up tight against the wheel, and then back it off about 1/32" so the wheel can turn freely. Put a drop of Medium or Thick CA glue, or epoxy glue, on the outside of WRT to hold it on the axle.




37a.

Use a #11 hobby knife to make a 1/4" dia. hole in the bottom of the fuselage to accept the Main Gear Post. Make the hole right at the back edge of the Keel that is inside the fuselage (see side view plan).

Tip: Before starting the hole, locate the back edge of the keel precisely along the bottom longeron of the fuselage by pushing a pin up thru the longeron. If you miss the first time, keep trying until you have the back edge of the keel exactly located. Then mark and cut the 1/4" dia. hole from that point.

b.

When you have the hole finished, insert the Main Gear Post thru the hole, up along the back edge of the Keel, and then into the space between former F4 and the 1/8" sq. balsa crosspiece that is right in front of F4. Check the alignment of the gear assembly to the fuselage and adjust as necessary. When you get the alignment just right, glue the gear assembly securely in place; gluing the gear post to the bottom of the fuselage, the back of the keel, and to the front of F4.

38a.

The Antoinetteís front landing gear skid is made of a plywood and balsa lamination. Locate the plywood core LG1 and balsa parts LG2, LG3, and LG4. Start by gluing a balsa LG2 on each side of LG1, being careful to line up all the edges carefully. Make sure you keep the assembly flat. Donít create a bow or twist in the assembly by gluing the parts together in mid air. Work on a flat surface while gluing.

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b. Glue balsa parts LG3 and LG4 in place on each side of LG1.

c.

When dry, block sand all the edges of the skid assembly to clean up any rough spots.

Note: Old photos show that the landing gear skids on the original Antoinettes were square cornered, not rounded or airfoil shaped as you might think they would be. Remember, this was just 6 years after the Wright brothers first flew! Streamlining was not a big consideration at the slow speeds these airplanes flew.

39.

Glue the skid assembly in place on the fuselage.
Note: You may have to adjust one or more of the skidís struts slightly to mate up perfectly with the rest of the airplane. With three contact points, and a potential for small variations in the length of the main gear post, the skid may not mate up perfectly the first time. Adjust as needed.

40.

Glue plywood part LG5 in place on the bottom of the landing gear assembly.

41.

Glue plywood part LG6 in place on the back of the main gear post.
Tip:Working with these small parts can be tedious! Try this. Mark the location for LG6 on the back of the gear post. Holding LG6 with a needle nose pliers, put a small bead of Medium CA glue on the mating edge. Quickly spray the back of the gear post with CA Accelerator.



Touch LG6 to the back of the gear post, lining it up with your marks. The part will be glued in place just as soon as it contacts the accelerator soaked gear post. Let go.

42.

Glue the other LG6 plywood part in place on the bottom of the fuselage, beneath former F5.

WINGS

44.

Four 1/4" dia. balsa dowels are provided for making the leading and trailing edges of the wings. Notice that each dowel has a 6-1/8" long slot in one end.
Glue a 1/32" plywood WSF wing stiffener in each slot with thin CA. Make sure the edges of the WSF plywood do not protrude outside the diameter of the dowel.

When dry, sand very lightly to smooth out any rough spots. Then, trial fit the stiffened end of the dowel inside one of the 1/4" id aluminum wing mount tubes. If the dowel is too big, gradually sand it down until it fits properly. You want the wing dowel to fit inside the aluminum tube with a little bit of friction, but not too much.


The idea is to achieve a snug fit that will hold the dowel in place, yet allow the dowel to be easily removed when you want to take the wings off your airplane. Obviously, you don't want it so loose that the dowel falls out.

45a.

Lay two of the balsa dowels on the wing plan for Leading Edges. Make sure the plywood-reinforced end of the dowels is at the root end of the wing panels. Then, mark and cut the dowels to proper length.

b.

Lay two of the balsa dowels on the wing plan for Trailing Edges. Make sure the plywood-reinforced end of the dowels is at the root end of the wing panels. Then, mark and cut the dowels to proper length.

46.

Cover your wing plan with wax paper or plastic wrap for protection. Working on one wing panel at a time, pin the trailing edge, leading edge, and all the wing ribs W1 thru W8 in exact position on the plan. Double check to see that you have the plywood reinforcements in the root ends of the dowels situated vertically for maximum strength. After these parts are securely pinned in place, glue all the joints with thin CA.
NOTE: Itís best not to push pins through the leading and trailing edges. Instead, straddle these narrow parts with crossed pins pushed into the building board. Look closely at the photos and youíll see what we mean.

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47. Glue in the balsa wing gussets WG1, WG2, WG3, and WG4 in the four corners of the wing panel.

48.

Glue a 1/16"x1/4" balsa cap strip along the inside of the W1 wing rib. It should be flush with the top edge of the rib.
49. Cut to length and glue in position the 1/8" sq. balsa Tip Braces. (see the photo)

49.

Use a 90 deg. triangle to mark the locations of the 1/16" od x1/4" Aluminum Tube Rigging Points (10 per wing panel) onto the faces of the appropriate wing ribs. Glue the rigging points to the ribs at those locations. Be careful not to get any glue inside the tubes.

Note: The two Rigging Points on rib W1 must be installed thru the 1/16"x1/4" balsa cap strip.






50.

When dry, the entire wing can be removed from the building board. Double check all the joints for adequate glue and apply a little more if necessary. Clean up any rough edges with a fine grit sanding block.

Repeat Steps 46 through 50 to construct the opposite wing panel.

51.

Use a sharp #11 hobby knife to make 3/8" dia. holes in the fuselage side sheeting where the trailing edges of the wings will be mounted. Make sure the bottom of the hole is flush with the top of the rear dihedral brace RDB.

Tip: Before starting the hole, locate the top edge of RDB precisely on the outside of the fuselage by pushing a pin thru side sheeting from the inside. Then, mark and cut the 3/8" dia. hole from that point. Also, due to the fragile nature of the side sheeting, itís best to make the hole undersize first, and then, gradually open it up closer to finished size. Finish shaping and sizing the hole with sandpaper wrapped around a scap of 1/4" dowel.

52.

Sand the outside of the four 1/4" id x1" Aluminum Wing Mount Tubes with 220 grit sandpaper to improve glue adhesion. Then, slip the wing mount tubes onto the root ends of the leading and trailing edges of both wing panels.

Now, trial fit one of the wing panels to the fuselage, resting the wing mount tubes in position against the FDB and RDB dihedral braces in the fuselage. When you have the wing panel lined up properly, have a helper put a single drop of thin CA glue between the aluminum tube and dihedral brace. Donít over glue at this point or the excess glue might seep inside the tube, permanently gluing your wing panel into the tubes.

After tack gluing both the front and rear tubes to the dihedral braces, have your helper slowly pull the wing out of the tubes, while you continue to hold pressure against the tubes, keeping them from breaking loose. After the wing is removed, re-glue the wing mount tubes securely to the surrounding fuselage structure with medium or slow CA. Avoid getting any glue inside the aluminum tubes.

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53. After one set of wing mount tubes has been installed, repeat the same procedure to install the wing mount tubes for the opposite wing panel.

54.

Glue the laser-cut plywood WM wing mounts in place over the front wing mount tubes. You will have to use your hobby knife to angle the edges of the holes slightly to allow the aluminum tubes to fit.

Set the wings aside until needed later.


TAIL SURFACES

55.

Cover the Stabilizer/Elevator plan with wax paper or plastic wrap for protection. Use 1/8" square balsa sticks and laser-cut parts S1 and S2 to construct the Stabilizer directly over the drawing. When dry, unpin the Stabilizer from the plan and lightly sand all the glue joints smooth.

Note: Remember to cut the longest pieces of 1/8" sq. balsa first, then the shorter pieces, in order to make the most efficient use of the stock 36" long sticks.

56.

Use 1/8" square balsa sticks and laser-cut part CHG to construct the Elevator directly over the drawing. When dry, unpin the Elevator from the plan and lightly sand all the glue joints smooth.

57.





58.

Cover the Fin/Rudder plan with wax paper or plastic wrap for protection. Use 1/8" square balsa sticks to construct the Fin directly over the drawing.
When dry, unpin the Fin from the plan and lightly sand all the glue joints smooth.

Use 1/8" square balsa sticks and laser-cut part CHG to construct the Rudder directly over the drawing.
When dry, unpin the Rudder from the plan and lightly sand all the glue joints smooth.