RISER 100 RC62 COVERING

All of the RISER 100 prototypes were covered with Sig Supercoat Iron-On Plastic Covering. The covering is ideal for sailplanes because of it's light weight and ease of application.

Start by covering the wing from the main spar to the trailing edge with Transparent Blue. Next, cover the wing panel from the spar forward to the leading edge with White. The white should overlap the Blue about 1/2" at the spar! Follow the same procedures to cover the top and bottom of all four wing panels.

The fuselage should be completely covered with White Supercoat, and the Red and Blue stripes are then added with the striping tape. Completely cover the stabilizer, elevators, fin, and rudder with Transparent Blue. Cut the White for the leading edges of the stabilizer and fin from Sig SuperTrim, remove the paper backing, and press the White trim in place. Add Red striping tape to the stab and fin to finish them.

NOTE: If you choose another brand of covering material, be sure to read the manufacturer's directions that come with the material. Follow their instructions closely when applying the material, as different brand coverings can have slightly different handling characteristics and application temperatures. However, the basic techniques for applying iron-on plastic coverings of any brand are similar, and the following hints and photos should be helpful.

90.

The structure that is to be covered must be clean, dry, and dust free. Finish sand all the surfaces smooth with 220 or finer abrasive paper. Remember that the covering material cannot hide poor workmanship. Whip the entire surface with a tack rag or a cloth dampened with alcohol to remove excess dust.

91.

You should start by covering the bottom of the wing first and then the top of the wing. This leaves the overlapping seam on the bottom where it is less visible. Cut the covering to size, allowing approximately one inch excess around the edges. Remove the plastic backing from the covering and lay the adhesive side against the structure. Lay it down as smooth as possible.

92.

Using your hot sealing iron (set a 200 deg. F for Sig Supercoat), tack down the covering material at several places around the outside edges. Once it is smoothly tacked in place, work completely around the edges, sealing the covering entirely to the structure. Don't try to shrink the covering tight at this time.

NOTE: If the surface of the sealing iron becomes contaminated with the colored adhesive that often oozes from under the covering, wipe the iron clean with a dry cloth.




93.

Trim off the excess covering with a sharp razor blade or modeling knife.



94.

Go over all of the edges of the covering again with the hot sealing iron to make sure they are sealed down securely.

95.

Repeat the process from Step 91 to cover the top of the wing. Overlap all covering seams at least 3/8" with the covering material on the other side.

96.

To shrink the covering drum tight in the inner areas, we recommend that you use a "heat gun". A household hair dryer will not get hot enough to shrink plastic model covering. You need a special heat gun made specifically for shrinking model coverings. If you do not have a heat gun, you can also use your sealing iron to shrink the coverings tight. Cover the iron with a sock and turn up the heat a little more than it was for sealing the edges to compensate for the sock being on. The sock helps keep the iron from scratching the glossy surface of the covering material.

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Move the heat gun or iron back and forth over the surface of the wing, allowing the heat to shrink all of the covering on that side at the same rate. Keep the heat gun moving at all times, about 4" to 6" above the covering. If you stop moving for too long, or hold the gun too close, you might melt a hole in the covering. If you notice that the covering material is "ballooning-up" and not shrinking completely, put a small pin hole in the bottom of each rib bay to allow expanding air to escape.

97.

Reseal all overlapping seams and edges with a sealing iron. This includes leading and trailing edges, ribs and spars.

98.

Cover the bottom of the fuselage first. When cutting the material for the bottom allow enough extra material around the nose, or any other area with compound curves, so you can get a good grip on it with your hand. Start by sealing the covering to the model at the tail. Work slowly forward with the hot iron, sealing the covering smoothly to the bottom of the fuse. When you get to the nose area, work the iron over the covering with one hand while you pull on it with your other hand. As the covering becomes pliable from the heat, you can pull it gently around the curve. Work slowly, allowing the heat to do the work. Do not pull too hard or the covering will tear. When you have it stuck in place, trim off the excess covering material and reseal the edges with the iron.

99.

Repeat this procedure for covering both sides of the fuselage. Allow about 1/8"x1/4" overlap onto the top and bottom of the fuse.







100.

Cover the fuselage top in the same manner as the bottom and sides. Remember to reaseal the edges after trimming.

101.

Cover the stabilizer, fin, and rudder using the same techniques as used for covering the wing.

102.

Cut away the covering over the pushrod exit holes.

103.

Use a sharp razor blade or modeling knife to carefully cut away all covering material in the areas where the tail surfaces will be glued on. There must be wood-to-wood contact in the glue joints. Try not to cut too deep into the wood itself.

104.

Cover the bottom side of the elevators first and then the top. When covering solid sheet surfaces like the elevators, better results may be obtained by starting at the center and working toward the outer edges. This allows the air to escape from under the covering as it is applied.

"DKM" Stik-Tite
Pressure Sensitive Decals
Cut out the decals with a pair of sharp scissors. Leave about 1/32" to 1/16" of clear edge around the decal. Round the corners as you are cutting. Wet the surface on which the decal will be placed with soapy water (use dishwater detergent). Place the decal on the model and squeegee the water from underneath with a balsa paddle. Allow to dry. This procedure will prevent air from being trapped underneath as is possible when the decals are applied dry.


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INSTALLING EASY HINGES

105.

Using a No. 11 X-Acto blade (or similar) cut slots in the control surfaces approximately 1/2" in depth and slightly wider than the hinge at the locations shown on the plans. Continue cutting all of the slots in all the places to be hinged.

106.

After all slots have been cut, insert an EASY HINGE halfway into each slot in one of the pieces to be hinged. DO NOT GLUE THE HINGES YET! First carefully slide the matching model part onto the other half of the hinges. You'll find it easiest to slide the part onto the hinges at an angle, one hinge at a time, instead of trying to push it straight onto all the hinges at once.







107.

At this point the stabilizer and elevator are joined on the EASY HINGES, but the hinges are not glued. Align the stab and elevator, then adjust the gap between them as required. For best control response, the gap should generally be as small as possible but big enough to allow the control surface to move to the maximum deflection that you will require.

108.

Place three or four drops of any brand cyanoacrylate adhesive (thinnest variety) directly onto the EASY HINGE in the gap. You will notice that the glue is quickly wicked into the slot as it penetrates both the wood and the hinge. Continue this process, gluing the same side of all of the hinges. Then turn the surfaces over and repeat the gluing process on the other side of each hinge.

109.

After the glue has cured, approximately three minutes, the joint can be flexed. You may notice a slight stiffness in the joint. This can be eliminated by flexing the surface to full deflection each direction a couple of dozen times. Don't worry about shortening the life of the hinge as they are almost indestructible.

110.

Hinge the rudder to the fin in the same manner as above. However, do not glue the bottom hinge of the rudder at this time, this will be done in the final assembly when the fin is glued in place on the fuselage.


FINAL ASSEMBLY

111.

Back in Step 10 of the fuselage construction you drill holes in the fuse sides for the 3/16" birch dowels that hold the wing on when standard rubber band mounting is used. Now you can epoxy the dowels in place. The wing dowels can be painted a matching color with enamel or dope.


112.

Cut away the covering material from the bottom of the stab where it will contact the fuselage. Then epoxy the stab in place on the fuse. Use slow drying epoxy to allow you ample time to carefully align the stabilizer with the fuse and wing. Check the alignment of the stab to the wing from the front and top before the glue dries. Mount the wing on the fuselage, step back about 10 feet and view the model from the front. Tilt the stab slightly if necessary. Use a tape measure to insure that the wing and stab are at equal distance and parallel to each other. Use pins to hold the stab securely in position until dry.

113.

Set the fin/rudder assembly in place on the fuselage. Cut a hinge slot in the rear of the fuselage for the bottom rudder hinge.

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114. Epoxy the fin permanently onto the stabilizer and into the die-cut slot in the fuselage top at the same time. Also, insert the bottom rudder hinge into the fuselage when gluing the fin in place. Use a triangle to align the fin with the stabilizer, pin securely in place, and allow to dry. Glue the bottom hinge into the rudder and fuselage with thin variety CA glue, as was done for all the other hinges.

115.

Draw a pencil line down the center of the fuselage bottom to help align the ABS plastic skid. Apply double coated foam servo mounting tape to the plastic skid, remove the paper backing from the tape, and press the skid into place.
NOTE: The ABS plastic skid can be painted a matching color with either enamel or dope.

116.

To complete the installation of the nylon elevator pushrod, first cut one of the 2-56 x10" threaded rods provided to 2-1/2" overall length, measuring from the threaded end. Then put a "Z" bend (or an "L" bend if you are going to use a pushrod keeper) in the non threaded end of the rod.




117.

Screw the threaded end of the wire approximately 1-1/4" into the 1/8" o.d. nylon inner pushrod tubing that goes inside the larger tube that was perviously installed in the fuselage.


118.


Slide the inner pushrod tubing into the outer tubing from the servo end. Install the "Z" bend through the servo arm and hook it up to the servo.

NOTE: It may be necessary to trim the servo arm down to prevent it from rubbing on the side of the fuselage.



119.

Two nylon control horns have been supplied for the elevator and rudder. Install the control horns on the control surfaces with #2 x1/2" sheet metal screws. Mount one horn on the left side of the rudder and the other horn on the bottom of the right elevator.

120.

With the elevator servo neutralized, and the elevator level, cut off the protruding end of the inner pushrod tube 1-1/4" from the control horn. Then cut one of the 2-56 x10" threaded rods provided to 4-1/2" overall length, as measured from the threaded end. Slide the unthreaded end of the rod completely into the inner pushrod tube and then screw in about 3/16" of the threaded portion. Install the nylon R/C link and hook the pushrod up to the control horn.

Repeat Step 120, to finish the end of the rudder pushrod.

121.

Adjust your elevator pushrod linkage to achieve 3/4" up and 3/4" down elevayot movement with the full throw of the transmitter stick. The trim should be set in the neutral position.



122.

Adjust the rudder pushrod linkage to achieve 2" of left and 2" of right rudder movement. The trim should be set in neutral position.

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123. The installation of the spoilers can now be completed. Two 3/64" x 1-3/8" wires, with a loop in one end, are provided for making spoiler actuator wires. Finish shaping these wires by bending them with pliers to match the pattern shown. Then epoxy one of the wires in place on the bottom of each spoiler, directly in line with the end of the plastic tubing in the wing.

124.

Two 1/2"x3/4" pieces of lead are provided for spoiler closing weights. Use the double coated servo mounting tape provided to stick one piece of lead on the bottom of each spoiler.





125.

Hing the spoilers permanently in place. We prefer to use plastic trim tape or clear vinyl tape as a spoiler hinge. We do not recommend using heat-shrinkable plastic covering material as a hinge because it can tighten up in the hot sun and cause the spoilers to bind. Trim tape is slightly thicker and not as easily affected by the sun. To hinge the spoilers, simply set them in place in the center of the cut out in the wing. Tape the leading edge of the spoiler to the front of the cut out with two 1" long pieces of tape, applied near the ends of the spoiler, on the top only.

126.

Six feet of thin dracon line is provided for actuating the spoilers from a servo mounted in the fuselage. Cut the dracon line into two 3 foot long pieces. Feed the dracon line through the plastic tubing in the wing.
HINT: The easiest way to do this is to take a long piece of 1/32" or smaller music wire (not provided) and feed it through the tube first. Then make a tight hook in the end of the wire, tie the dracon line to the hook, and pull the wire and line back through the tubing. Tie the end of the dracon line to the actuator wire mounted on the bottom of the spoiler.

127.

Use the remaining 3/64"x1-3/8" wire with the loop in one end to make a hookup wire for linking the dracon line to the servo output arm. Put a "Z" bend in the end of the wire and install it in the servo arm. Then tie a loop in the end of the dracon lines coming from each wing panel and loop both lines over the hookup wire. Hold the wing in place on the fuselage and operate the spoiler servo with the throttle stick of your transmitter. Both spoilers should come open at the same time and should open the same amount. You will undoubtably have to readjust the length of the dracon lines several times before getting them perfect, so don't tie the knots too tight at first.

128.

A 4-40 x 8" threaded rod is provided for making the towhook. Cut the threaded rod to 2" overall length, measuring from the threaded end. File or grind the cut end smooth. Next use pliers to bend the threaded rod to match the pattern here. Screw a 4-40 hex nut on the threaded end, add a flat metal washer, and then screw the towhook into the blind nut in the fuselage.

Airplanes Must Be Straight And Balanced (or straighten up and fly right!)

One of the secrets to a good flying model is to make sure the wing is straight and the model is properly balanced. Check to make sure there are no warps in the wing. If there are, twist the wing in the opposite direction of the warp and apply heat to both sides of the covering material, starting on the side opposite the warp. Hold until the covering cools, then recheck for straightness. Try again if necessary. It is helpful to have a friend assist you with this procedure.

The spanwise balance of the wing is an often overlooked but essential part of balancing a model. Place your assembled RISER 100 wing on a flat table with both wingtips equal distance above the table. Let go and observe which wing panel falls to the table. Add very small amounts of weight to the opposite wing tip until it will balance on the dihedral joint at the center of the wing. Permanently install the weights in the wing tip.

To check the fore and aft balance of your model, mount the wing on the fuselage. The fuselage side view plan shows the location for balancing your RISER 100. The forward location is for the first test flights and for newcomers to the sport of R/C soaring. The rearward location is for more experienced pilots. A more rearward balance point or Center of Gravity (C.G.) will give the RISER 100 a flatter glide but it will also make it more sensitive to control movements. A forward C.G. will make the controls less sensitive and the model more stable for better wind penetration with a very slight loss of thermal capability. Balance your RISER 100 within the recommended C.G. range to suit your needs and style of flying. Move the battery pack fore or aft to achieve the balance point you want. After flying your model, you may want to readjust the final balance to achieve the desired performance. Every model will fly a little different! Do not attempt to fly the model with the balance point too far back.

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Pre-Flight

Make sure the servos are securely mounted, the servo arms have their retaining screws in place, and all screws are tight.

Range check your radio as per the manufacturer's instructions and make sure it is fully charged. If there are any problems, send the radio in for repairs.

Double Check Everything You Can Think Of!

A model and radio that is not prepared and working properly on the ground before take-off will not improve in the air - IT WILL GET WORSE! There is no point attempting to fly until everything is 100% correct.


FLYING THE RISER 100

First Test Flight

While it is possible that a R/C sailplane can be mastered by a beginner without any assistance, the odds of success are pretty slim. Don't be too proud to ask for advice and help from more experienced fliers. A little help at the right time from an instructor can get you out of trouble and possibly save your model from a bad crash.

Choose an area that is free of obstructions such as buildings and trees and pick a day when there is little or no wind. Fasten the wing to the fuselage with eight #64 rubberbands. Place six of the rubberbands on parallel to the ribs and crisscross the final two. If your flying site is occupied by other fliers, check with them to be sure that your frequency won't interfere with theirs, and vice-versa.

Turn your receiver and transmitter on and fully extend the antenna. Gently hand toss the sailplane into the wind with the nose pointed slightly down and the wings level. Start by running a couple steps with the model, then release it with a smooth spear throwing action. Aim for a spot on the ground about 50 yards out ahead of you.

DO NOT THROW THE SAILPLANE VIOLENTLY!

If the nose of the sailplane pitches up, feed in some down elevator. If the nose pitches down, feed in some up elevator.

DO NOT OVER CONTROL!

Keep your control movements smooth. If the sailplane veers left, feed in some right rudder. If it veers right, feed in some left rudder.The main thing to remember when flying a sailplane is not to over control. If the model does get out of control, and you have sufficient altitude, a glider is so stable that you can usually just let go of the sticks momentarily and the model will right itself. Many models have crashed because a beginner continued to send the wrong input. On landing, when the sailplane is about two feet from the ground, make sure the wings are level and start slowly feeding in some up elevator to slow the model and establish a gentle descent. The model should settle onto the ground in a slightly nose high attitude.

After each test flight, readjust the R/C links on the pushrods so that the trim levers on the transmitter can be returned to a neautral position. It may take several flights to completely trim out the model.

Thermal Soaring

Thermal soaring is by far the most popular type of R/C soaring. It is not uncommon to see two or more sailplanes riding the same thermal, all of them circling for altitude and staying in the thermal. A thermal is a rising column of hot air - air that has been overheated by the sun radiating off dark areas of ground such as roads, plowed fields, buildings, etc. Thermals can be found year around and just about anytime of the day. However, the most active time for thermals is during the spring and summer months with mid-morning to mid-afternoon being the best time of day to find them. Thermals are easy to detect on days when the wind is light. Many times you can feel the temperature difference when the warm thermal air passes by you. Often a low fluffy cumulus cloud indicates the location of a thermal. Also watch for large birds (hawks, gulls, eagles, buzzards, etc.) circling and maintaining their altitude without flapping their wings. They are riding a thermal!

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Thermals are normally small near the ground and tend to increase in diameter the higher up they go. To get into a thermal, we must first gain some altitude. There are two commonly used methods of launching a sailplane into the air.

HIGH-START:

A high-start is made up of surgical tubing and nylon cord. Its purpose is to "sling-shot" the glider into the air like a large rubber band launched model. High-starts come in several different sizes to match the class of the sailplane being flown - a standard class hi-start is recommended for the RISER 100. The standard class high-start usually consists of 100 feet of rubber surgical tubing and 350 feet of nylon cord (although some brands may differ slightly). The surgical tubing is fastened to a stake pounded into the ground. The other end of the tubing is then tied to the nylon cord, while the other end of the nylon cord has a small parachute attached to it. The high-start is layed out on the ground directly into the wind. The parachute end of the high start is attached to the sailplane's towhook. Start walking backwards with the model, stretching the high-start as you go. Go back until the high-start has been stretched to a maximum of 800 feet.
With the sailplane pointed at the stake, raise the nose to approximately 30 degrees and level the wings. Firmly toss the sailplane into the air. Feed in a small amount of up elevator after the launch and the sailplane will begin to climb to the maximum height of the high start. If the sailplane veers to the left or right correct it with opposite rudder. DO NOT OVER CONTROL! If it constantly veers from side to side and is hard to control, you are probably holding too much up elevator. Back off a little to regain good directional control. As the sailplane reaches the top, the line should drop off by itself. If it doesn't, feed in a little down elevator to allow the sailplane to dive slightly and the line will fall off. Pull back on the elevator to level off so you can start trimming for the flattest glide.

WINCH:

A winch is a battery operated device that uses an electric motor to drive a large spool that reels in the long towline. There is no rubber surgical tubing involved. As the line is reeled in, it pulls the sailplane up to altitude. The speed of the winch is normally controlled by the glider pilot using a foot pedal as he flies the model with his hands. Most competition oriented sailplane enthusiasts prefer a winch launch over a high-start simply because they can control the speed that the line is reeled in and thus better control the speed and pull on their model.

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Now that the sailplane is at altitude, it is time to go thermal hunting. Start by trimming the RISER 100 for a nice flat glide and head upwind flying a zig-zag pattern. Never cover the same ground twice while searching for thermals. Be looking for areas where you can see heat waves radiating up, or hawks circling, or swirling "dust devils" being picked up off the ground. Remember, smooth flying is the secret to long flights. Watch the sailplane closely as it is flying. If it suddenly seems to "rise up on a step", stops sinking and starts gaining altitude, you know you are in a thermal. Or if you see one wing or the other bump up, immediately turn towards the high wing to try to get into the thermal that caused the bump. Once you are in a thermal, feed in a small amount of rudder trim to set the sailplane up for a large glide circle of approximately 100 to 200 feet diameter. As the sailplane continues to gain altitude, you can open up the glide circle slightly. Once in the thermal, do not let the sailplane get so far downwind that you can't get it back to the field if the lift dies out.

Slope Soaring

Slope soaring is a unique sport in itself and probably the fastest growing aspect of R/C soaring. Wherever you can find a decent size hill with a 1015 m.p.h. wind blowing into it, you can slope soar. When the wind is blowing into the face of the hill, it is deflected upward by the slope of the hill. This upward rising air is the lift we use to soar on. Wind velocity and the amount of slope in the hill will determine the amount of lift generated by a particular site. The amount of lift can also be affected by obstructions such as trees, buildings, etc. So try to pick a hill with a long smooth approach to it that is free of obstructions.

Although there are many special aerobatic slope soaring designs around, the RISER 100 can give a pretty good account of itself at slope soaring for duration. The only addition you need to make to your RISER 100 for slope soaring is to add some ballast to help it penetrate the wind. Depending upon the actual velocity of the wind on the day you are flying, try adding 6 - 12 ounces of weight inside the fuselage directly over the C.G.

Launch the sailplane out over the crest of the hill by throwing it with the wings level and with the nose of the sailplane pointed slightly down. Fly the sailplane parallel to the slope, and when you need to turn around, always make your turns into the wind, away from the slope.
Use smooth control movements and fly the sailplane back and forth across the slope staying in the lift. Never turn downwind, into the slope until you decide it is time to land. When landing, make sure that you have a fair amount of altitude, then fly the sailplane behind the slope, and make a gentle descent to a landing on top of the hill. If you are too high on your landing approach, make S-turns to lose altitude or go around.

It will take a little practice to master the art of slope soaring, but it is well worth the effort and a lot of fun.

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If you have any technical questions or comments about this kit, or any other SIG product, please call us.
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